The Lower Valley of the Omo River is a prehistoric site where many hominid fossils have been found. They are of fundamental importance in the study of human evolution. It has been registered in 1980.

Several hominid fossils and archaeological localities, dating to the Pliocene and Pleistocene, have been excavated by French and American teams. Fossils belonging to the genera Australopithecine and Homo have been found at several archaeological sites, as well as tools made from quartzite, the oldest of which date back to about 2.4 million years ago.

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